To contribute to the goals of the agreement, countries presented comprehensive national climate change plans (national fixed contributions, NDC). These are not yet sufficient to meet the agreed temperature targets, but the agreement points to the way forward for further measures. So what should be addressed in the Paris Agreement if we are to put in place stronger international measures on climate change, which are now mobilizing action and which encourage even more action in the years to come (we will outline these key elements in our new `exit letter`? The agreement aims to reach a “global summit of greenhouse gas emissions as soon as possible” but does not set a target date. The agreement therefore leaves a lot of room for some countries, such as India, to significantly increase their emissions, while others reduce their emissions to achieve this goal. The new agreement aims to limit global warming to “significantly below 2 degrees Celsius” or 3.6 degrees Fahrenheit above pre-industrial levels and to “continue efforts to limit temperature increase to 1.5 degrees Celsius,” or 2.7 degrees Fahrenheit, above pre-industrial levels until 2100. The EU and its member states are among the nearly 190 parties to the Paris Agreement. The EU formally ratified the agreement on 5 October 2016, allowing it to enter into force on 4 November 2016. In order for the agreement to enter into force, at least 55 countries representing at least 55% of global emissions had to file their ratification instruments. In response to the climate challenge, the agreement recognizes that states have common but differentiated responsibilities, i.e. according to their national capabilities and specificities. Countries have already agreed to mobilize $100 billion in public and private funds by 2020 to help developing countries reduce their emissions and adapt to climate change. We know that after 2020, more resources will be needed, as we move towards an even greater reduction in emissions in subsequent years and the resilience needs for climate change will be even greater.
That is why the Paris agreement must send a clear signal that countries will help mobilize more financial aid to help the poorest countries build low-carbon, climate-resilient economies. These investments can help stimulate an even cleaner energy economy around the world, redouble efforts to reduce emissions and help countries cope with the devastating effects of climate change that will reduce the well-being of their citizens. A decision attached to the agreement “invites” the UN Committee of Experts on Climate Change to present a special report in 2018 on the effects of global warming of more than 1.5 degrees Celsius and on how to adopt emissions to keep temperatures above that threshold.